by Geophysics Research Directorate, Air Force Cambridge Research Center in Bedford, Mass .
Written in English
|Series||Geophysical research papers ;, no. 39|
|LC Classifications||QC1 .U54 no. 56-207|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||x, 135 p. :|
|Number of Pages||135|
|LC Control Number||56062072|
The Chemistry of the Oxides of Nitrogen in the Upper Atmosphere and the Results of A Continent-Wide Precipitation Chemistry Program for the Analyses of NO3~ and NH4"'~ in Rain Water* that Ns>0 has the same vertical distribution as the main body of the atmosphere. THE CHEMISTRY AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE OXIDES OF NITROGEN IN THE ATMOSPHERE. 1. SUMMARY AND EVALUATION L.1 INTRODUCTION One of the main problems in the study of the compo-4ition of the upper atmosphere is the distribution, abundanc-e and pressures of the constituent gases. The Chemistry of Nitrogen provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nitrogen and its compounds. This book discusses the importance of nitrogen compounds in the soil. Organized into 18 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history of nitrogen and its compounds and the first synthetic process involving nitrogen. Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO 2; NO x) have a bad press, particularly in the wake of the vehicle emissions they are just a small part of a highly complex nitrogen cycle, which controls.
Nitrogen compounds have a very long history, ammonium chloride having been known to were well known by the Middle Ages. Alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis (strong water), as well as other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium salts and nitrate salts. The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known as aqua regia (royal water), celebrated for its ability to . Most pure nitrogen comes from the fractional distillation of liquid air. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen by volume. This means there are more than 20 million tons of nitrogen over every square mile of the earth’s surface. Nitrogen is a component of proteins and of the genetic material (DNA/RNA) of all plants and animals. In atmospheric chemistry, NO x is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain, as well as affecting tropospheric ozone.. NO x gases are usually produced from the reaction among nitrogen and oxygen during combustion of fuels, such as. These nitrogen oxides consist mainly of two molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2); there are other nitrogen-based molecules considered to be NO x, but they occur in much lower concentrations. A closely related molecule, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), is a significant greenhouse gas that plays a role in global climate change.
As described below, emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x =NO+NO 2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sulfur compounds (including SO 2 and reduced sulfur compounds) lead to a complex series of chemical and physical transformations which result in such effects as the formation of ozone in urban and regional areas (National Research Council. These readily oxidize so most of the nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere, apart from molecular nitrogen, are nitrogen oxides. The oxidation state of nitrogen varies from I to V in the oxides. (a) N 2 O, or nitrous oxide, and some NO, or nitric oxide, are produced by bacteria in the soil and in the oceans. Nitrous oxide is relatively unreactive. The objective of atmospheric chemistry is to understand the factors that control the concentrations of chemical species in the atmosphere. In this book we will use three principal measures of atmospheric composition: mixing ratio, number density, and partial pressure. As we will see, each measure has its own applications. Atmospheric composition and chemistry, aircraft emissions, tropospheric ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane oxidation. Abstract. The atmosphere contains a large number of chemical trace compounds among which complex chemical processes take place. These processes form an important part of the natural global biogeochemical cycles.